John Martin, Pandemonium, 1825

John Martin, Satan Presiding at the Infernal Council, c.1823–27

Pandæmonium is the capital of Hell in John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost.

"Pandæmonium" (in some versions of English "Pandemonium") stems from Greek "παν", meaning "all" or "every", and "δαιμόνιον", meaning "little spirit", or "little daemon", and later as Christians interpreted, "demon". It thus roughly translates as "All Demons", but can also be interpreted as Παν-δαιμον-ειον, "all-demon-place".

John Milton invented the name for the capital of Hell, "the High Capital, of Satan and his Peers", built by the shayatin at the suggestion of Mammon at the end of Book I of Paradise Lost (1667). It was designed by the architect Mulciber, who had been the designer of palaces in Heaven before his fall (in Milton, Mulciber is also the Roman God Vulcan). Book II begins with the debate among the "Stygian Council" in the council-chamber of Pandæmonium. The demons built it in about an hour, but it far surpassed all human palaces or dwellings; it may have been small, however, as the demons are described as shrinking from their titanic size in order to fit in.


  • Satan - Leader of Demons
  • Beelzebub - Satan's second-in-command
  • Mammon - Demons of greed
  • Moloch - Canaanite god of Sacrifice
  • Chemosh - Moabite god of war
  • Baal - Canaanite god of weather
  • Astarte - Phoenician goddess of war and fertility
  • Tammuz - Babylonian god of shepherds
  • Dagon - Philistine chief god
  • Rimmon - Assyrian god of thunder
  • Osiris - Egyptian god of the underworld
  • Isis - Egyptian goddess of rulership
  • Orus - Egyptian god of the sky
  • Belial - Demons of discord
  • Jove - Roman chief god
  • Mulciber - Roman god of the forge and architect of Pandæmonium
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